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Computer Organization and Architecture

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Arithmetic micro-operations constitute two varieties of among of which, one are BASIC Arithmetic Micro-operations and second are DERIVED Arithmetic Micro-operations.

Simple operations like ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, COMPLEMENTATION etc. are considered as BASIC micro-operations while MULTIPLICATION and DIVISION are the operations that undergo DERIVED Micro-operations.

A Multi-bit binary adder is simply a series of 'n', 1-bit full adders cascaded together with each full adder representing a single weighted column in a long binary addition. It is often called a ripple carry adder because the carry signals produce a 'ripple' effect through the binary adder from right to left, (LSB to MSB).

A multi-bit adder-subtractor uses the same circuit of cascaded FULL ADDERS. This circuit adds in the same way as the multi-bit adder, but subtracts using the twos complement method.

When subtraction is required, the C_{0} is set to logic 1, which causes the bit at any particular B input to be complemented by an XOR gate before being fed to input B of the full adder circuit.

The binary incrementer increases the value stored in a register by '1'. For this, it simply adds '1' to the existing value stored in a register. It is made by cascading 'n' half adders for 'n' number of bits i.e. the storage capacity of the register to be incremented. Hence, a 4-bit binary incrementer requires 4 cascaded half adder circuits.

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