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Computer Organization and Architecture

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

K-map is basically a box of several squares adjacent to each other. The number of squares in a box depends upon the number of variables used in that function. This relation is:

Normally K-maps are created for 2 or 3 or 4 variable functions. However it can be created for functions having even large number of variables as well. Here is how these maps look like:

- Prepare the respective map depending upon the number of variables used in the function.
- Put 1 on appropriate places for every min-term provided in the function.
- Make groups of 1's in the map. Although Karnaugh has introduced several rules for grouping. These are:
- groups can be made in exponents of 2 only.
- Only adjacent squares can be grouped. Diagonal grouping is not allowed.
- Always try to make the largest possible group.
- Gaps are not allowed in between groups.
- Min-terms that reside on boundaries of map can undergo external adjacency and hence can be grouped along.
- Unnecessary grouping should be avoided.
- If any min-term is left ungrouped, it should be evaluated solely.

- For evaluation of min-terms, following rules are to be used:
- If complete group falls under normal variable, it will be written normally.
- If complete group falls outside of normal variable, it will be written inversely.
- If half of the group falls under any variable, it will not be considered.

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