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Computer Organization and Architecture

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Computer is defined in the Oxford dictionary as-

__"An automatic electronic apparatus for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms".__

The basic function performed by a computer is the execution of a program. A program is a sequence of instructions, which operates on data to perform certain tasks. In modern digital computers data is represented in binary form by using two symbols 0 and 1, which are called binary digits or bits.

In very basic sence, Computer organization refers to the composition of computers with all necessary components and peripherals. All components connected together and working like a PC is what we call Computer Organization. On the other hand, Computer architecture refers to the way these components communicate together. The modes of communication, mutual synchronization, error handling and all related activities are under the scope of Computer Architecture.

A computer is a machine that accepts data, processes the data according to the instructions provided by the user, and finally returns the results to the user and usually consists of input, output, storage, arithmetic, logic, and control units.

Most of today's computer designs are based on concepts developed by John Von Neumann referred to as the ** Von Neumann architecture**. Von Neumann proposed that there should be a unit performing arithmetic and logical operation on the data. This unit is termed as Arithmetic Logic (ALU). The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and the Control Unit (CU) together are termed as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU generates addresses for searching data or instructions from the memory. Later it performs certain actions on these data or instructions.

Consider the following diagram:

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