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Computer Organization and Architecture

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

The external clock pulses (pulses to be counted) are fed directly to each of the J-K flip-flops in the counter chain and both the J and K inputs are all tied together in toggle mode, but only in the first flip-flop, logic is set to "1" allowing the flip-flop to toggle on every clock pulse. Then the synchronous counter follows a predetermined sequence of states in response to the common clock signal, advancing one state for each pulse.

Following is a diagram that clearly shows the TOGGLING effect of JK Flip-Flop on this counter. We can see that the Right most Flip-Flop works as for LSB bit while the Left most bit works as for the MSB bit. Thus Q3 toggles every-time when FF3 sets to 1. Q2 toggles every-time when FF2 sets to 1 and so on.

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