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Computer Organization and Architecture

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

The complete computer description includes both, the instruction cycle and the interrupt cycle. Interrupt cycle, because there may arise a case of I/O operation anytime during normal operation. Instruction cycle, because in absence of interrupts, the CPU is always busy with stored program instructions. A flip flop R is used as a condition to determine the type of operation. When R=0, the instruction cycle continues. Similarly when R=1, the computer goes through an interrupt cycle. **Here it must be noted that an interrupt is signaled by IEN and R is just to make it sure that another interrupt does not get entertained while processing of an interrupt.**

Consider the following diagram:

A basic computer consists of the following hardware components:

- A memory unit of 4096 X 16 bits
- Nine Registers- PC, AR, IR, DR, AC, TR, INPR, OUTR and SC
- Five Flip-Flops- I, R, IEN, FGI and FGO
- Two decoders- a 3 to 8 operation decoder and a 4 to 16 timing decoder
- A 16-bit common bus
- Control Logic Gates
- Arithmetic and Logic Unit connected to AC

Control functions and microoperations for a basic computer are as follows:

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