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Computer Organization and Architecture

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

An integrated circuit (IC) is a small electronic device made out of a semiconductor material. The first integrated circuit was developed in the 1950s by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor.

Integrated circuits are used for a variety of devices, including microprocessors, audio and video equipment, and automobiles. Integrated circuits are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic components.

Depending upon number of components integrated together, ICs are of following kinds:

**SSI (small-scale integration):**Up to 10 logic gates per package.**MSI (medium-scale integration):**From 10 to 200 logic gates per package.**LSI (large-scale integration):**From 200 to 1000 logic gates per package.**VLSI (very large-scale integration):**From 1000 to 10000 logic gates per package.**ULSI (ultra large-scale integration):**More than 10000 logic gates per package.

**NOTE: **Here keep in mind that the exact size and dimension of package is decided by a consortium. The consortium is often a group of manufacturer companies.

Depending upon the characteristics, ICs are of following kinds:

**TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic):**It is a standard and hence used in every IC.**ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic):**ICs based on this logic family work for high speed operation.**MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor):**This family works for high component density.**CMOS (Complimentry Metal Oxide Semiconductor):**This family works for low power consumption.

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