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Computer Organization and Architecture

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Logic Gates

Circuits to Truth Tables

Circuits to Expressions

Expressions to Circuits

Finding SOP from K-Map

Finding POS from K-Map

Finding SOP from K-Map having Don't Care

Half Adders

Full Adders

Flip Flop

Integrated Circuits

Decoders

Multiplexers

Registers

Counters

RAM

ROM

Number Systems

Complements

Number Representations

Binary Addition and Subtraction

Gray Codes

Error Detection Codes

Register Transfer Language

Bus and Memory Transfers

Arithmetic Micro-operations

Logical Micro-operations

Shift Micro-operations

Basic Computer Organization

Timing and Control

Instruction Cycle

Instruction Types

Interrupt Cycle

Complete Computer Description

General Register Organization

Stack Organization

Evaluation of Arithmetic Operations

Address Modes

Instruction Formats

RISC and CISC Architectures

Parallel Processing

Multiplication Algorithms

Circuits are nothing but many logic gates connected together. Though these connections are made for accomplishing some specific goals like to add two or more integers or to shift a number leftwards by one bit but in the phase of understanding circuits, we can start with any random connection of logic gates. Following are examples of simple logical circuits.

There are some important rules to be followed for figuring out Truth Tables of such circuits. See the following:

- Identify all those connections in the circuit where output of some gate is going as input to some other gate. In all these connections mark intermediate output like F
_{1}, F_{2}, F_{3},.... F_{n}. Meanwhile ignore all the fresh inputs and final output. - Draw truth table with only fresh inputs as inputs to the table and separate columns for different intermediate outputs. The very last column should be for final output.
- Based on the specific gates, deduce the intermediate outputs and keep on doing that till all intermediate outputs are not generated.
- Now the final output is easy to generate based on the gate used for creating it.

See the following example:

Here, F_{1} is `AND` of A and B. Similarly F_{2} is `NOT` of A. Now F_{3} is `OR` of F_{1} and F_{2}.

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